How Can Paraguay Promote Skills through Korea TVET ODA?
Keywords:ODA, TVET, latin america, skills, policy
Korea has continued steady growth in its official development assistance volume. Korea provided USD 2.2 billion, representing 0.14 percent of its gross national income (GNI) in 2020. Korea’s ODA budget has grown steadily. The Korean ODA project is expected to continue to increase in the field of TVET (technical vocational education and training) for developing countries. In early stage, the ODA project has been centered on Asian developing countries, but it is gradually expanding to Latin America and Africa. This paper analyzes the economy and ODA support status of Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, and Peru which are Korea's key ODA partners. Among the four countries, Paraguay's TVET and ODA current status are intensively focused. Through this, a plan for improving ODA performance and establishing a vocational education and training system is suggested. Suggestions for the improvement policies are as establishment of goal, vision and strategy for national TVET policy, establishment of comprehensive coordination mechanism between the government and the private sector, and establishment, promotion of TVET system and program.
Committee for International Development Cooperation. 2020.01. “34th Conference Document.” Sejong City: Prime Ministry Office. (Korean).
Consolidation Ministries. 2022.01.027. “2022 Comprehensive Implementation Plan for International Development Cooperation (based on the requested amount).” Sejong City: Prime Ministry Office. pp.36-38. (Korean).
Consolidation Ministries. 2021.01.20a. “Re-selection of Key ODA Partner Countries.” Sejong City: Prime Ministry Office. pp.6. (Korean).
Consolidation Ministries. 2021.01.20b. “Comprehensive Implementation Plan for International Development Cooperation for 21 years (based on the fixed amount).” Sejong City: Prime Ministry Office. pp.157. (Korean).
ECLAC. 2022. “Preliminary Overview of the Economies of Latin America and the Caribbean.” United Nations, Santiago: United Nations Press. pp.12.
ECLAC/ILO. 2018-2022. “Employment Situation in Latin America and the Caribbean; Employment Trends in an Unprecedented Crisis: Policy Challenges.” United Nations, Santiago: United Nations Press. pp.49-54.
ILO. 2021. “Labour Overview Series: 26 Million Jobs lost in Latin America and the Caribbean during Pandemic.” Jeneva: ILO Press.
Jung, J. 2021.4. 『New Act and New Role: Recent Changes in Korea’s International Development Cooperation. KIEP Opinion』. Sejong City: Korea Institute for International Economic Policy. (Korean).
Lee, M. 2021. “Employment Trends of Korean Junior College and Employment Support Ideas for the United States.” 『Korea Tourism University』.
Lee, N. 2020. “Current Status and Implications of Educational Polarization in Latin American Countries.” Education Development, 217: 50-56. (Korean).
Lee, N. 2017. “Efficient ODA Policy for Asian Developing Countries in Korea.” The Business Review, Cambridge Vol 24(2): 117-124.
Lee, N. 2015. “Supporting Human Resource Development in Developing Countries in Asia through Public Assistance Development (ODA).” The HRD Review 18(4): 80-95. (Korean).
Ministry of Education and Science. 2019. “Viceministerio de Eucacion, Sperior y Ciencias, Dirección General de Universidades, Institutos Superiores e Institutos Técnicos Superiors.” Asuncion: MEC Press.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2021.07.07. “2020 Monitoring Results of Grant Aid by Abroad Embassy.” Seoul: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (Korean).
OECD. 2022. “Multi-dimensional Review of Paraguay: Volume 3. From Analysis to Action.” Paris: OECD Press.
OECD. 2021. “2021 Trends and Insights on Development Cooperation.” Paris: OECD Press.
OECD. 2019. Development Cooperation Report 2019, A Fairer, Greener, Safer Tomorrow.” Paris: OECD Press.
SINAFOCAL. 2019. “Plan Estrategico Institucional Del Sistema Nacional De Formacion Y Cupacitacion Laboral,” Asuncion: SINAFOCAL Press.
World Economic Forum. 2012. “Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013. The Global Competitiveness Index. ” Cologny: WEF Press.
CIDC. 2021. 『Structure CIDC 』. http://www.odakorea.go.kr/eng. (2022.01.20.).
EXIM Bank. 2020. 『EDCF/IKCF』. https://koreaexim.go.kr. (2022.01.20.). (Korean)
KOICA. 2022. 『Open Data Portal』. https://www.koica.go.kr/sites/koica_kr/index.do. (2022.02.18.). (Korean)
KOICA. 2021. 『Statistics Lookup Service』. http://stat.koica.go.kr (2021.01.20.). (Korean).